Migration from your familiar surroundings is never easy, irrespective of the reason. Seasonal migration has posed as a challenge for the Indian education system for the last several decades. It is even more difficult for students who have to abandon their studies and move with their families due to climatic conditions, unemployment, flood and many more.  The schools from the origin of migration do not keep a tab on the migrated students since they eventually come back after a few months and in the gap of those months, the children are not enrolled in any educational institution for various reasons.

 The destination of migration may/ may not have proper schooling or a proper process in place for the migrated students, the migrated families may be in the poverty line and can’t afford the changes, the migrated family may have young children that need attention and hence the older school going sibling may not be able to continue their education.

Students that move with families fail to complete their education both in the origin of migration and destination of migration and lose the educational opportunities at a young age. As per the reports from the Ministry of Finance over 9 million people have migrated across various states between 2011 to 2016. Capturing data becomes more and more challenging in both the origin and destination of migration of these children.


Lack of educational opportunities for children due to seasonal migration causes some challenges:


  • Young students require peer relationships and fail to establish the same due to the movement and this results in their lack of psychological development.


  • Students left unattended while the parents /guardians are at work are often the targets of sexual exploitation.


  • Due to the lack of schooling in the destination of migration, children are often left at home to tend to their younger siblings and this, in turn, declines the parent’s interest in educating them.


  • Lack of regular schooling curbs the personality and intellectual development of students


  • The discontinued education, adjustment to a new location and lack of parent’s interest all result in curtailing the emotional development and social abilities of the children

Some of the states like Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have the highest migration rates during the months of October and November. They usually move to Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, and Delhi. These states have some climatic challenges and create the employment problem for the unskilled and semi-skilled workers and thus leads to seasonal migration.

 Some pointers to improve the challenges faced by the children of seasonal immigrants:


  • Database to be maintained to keep a track of the movement of children at the origin of immigration helps the numbers accountability and to take measures such as to facilitate lesson plans based on the movement would help them to not miss educational opportunities.


  • Ensuring smooth enrollment and free hostels at the destination of migration encourage the migrated parents to admit their children to school since it becomes hassle-free, cheaper and ensures the safety and security of their children.


  • Recent reports state that Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are the two states with the highest number of migration and Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab, J&K, West Bengal are some of the other states prone to seasonal migration. These states need to provide special attention to the educational challenges of the children that are affected.


  • Statistical accountability of the migratory children at both the origin of migration and destination of migration is very important.

Thus the Indian education system, especially the Ministry of Human Resources and Development should work hard come up with methods to counter the negative forces of seasonal migration on the education system.





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